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Multimodal Metaphor. Ed. by Forceville, Charles J. / Urios-Aparisi, Eduardo. Series:Applications of Cognitive Linguistics [ACL] DE GRUYTER MOUTON.
Table of contents
- Multimodal Metaphor by Charles J. Forceville
- University Of Gloucestershire
- Pictorial and Multimodal Metaphor
Thus, the GP encompasses the preparation phase and the stroke phase, as well as eventual hold phases pre and post-stroke between the stroke and the retraction. Like linguistic phrases, gestural phrases also show a structure analog to the syntactic structure, closely linked to the co-occurrence of gestures together with speech:. The nucleus of the gesture phrase, that is, the stroke and the held phase that may follow it, tends to be performed in such a way that it is done at the same time, or nearly at the same time as the word or the word cluster that constitutes the nucleus, in a semantic sense, of the spoken phrase.
This means that, by coordinating temporally the nucleus of the gesture phrase i. It is important to highlight that, although there is a co-occurrence relation between gestures and speech, these are seen as distinct means of expression: the gestures, as visual utterances, and the sentences, as verbal utterances, which, in face-to-face interactions, are related to the auditory modality. In this way, when creating a single utterance using two different means of expression, " When analyzing the selected excerpts, we found eleven occurrences of spatial orientation metaphors: three of these are predominantly verbal occurrences, that is, the forearms and hands remain in a resting position during the transmission of the utterance, whereas the remaining occurrences are predominantly verbal-gestural.
In the first sample presented, Serra asks a question about health. Before asking the question, the candidate discourses on health in Brazil. Well, another question that I would like to ask concerns health in Brazil. Health in Brazil has fallen back. We only need to look at the surveys to see that way. Both metaphors presented are very conventional ones, related to spatial orientation.
Multimodal Metaphor by Charles J. Forceville
The first, "Regressing is going backwards", is part of the more general set "Good is going forward" and "Bad is going backwards". In turn, the second metaphor used, "Seeing something is seeing in a determined way", is part of the set "Knowing is seeing". In this context, the metaphors work as criticism to the situation, represented by candidate Dilma, regarding health. My question now is about security. Security in Brazil is a serious problem. Besides, security, together with health and education, is one of the problems that most afflicts our population. And security has been falling back in the past few years.
To show that the importance given to health and security is the same, the candidate uses a metaphor in which the subjects are at the same spatial level: next to each other. In the following excerpt, the metaphor "Regressing is going backwards" is used, which results in criticizing the current security situation in the country.
Well, as everybody saw, she did not answer the question on health, right, it's something so important for Brazil today. And she did not show the way to move forward. Once again, the candidate uses a metaphor belonging to the set "Knowing is seeing", whose variant, in this context, would be "Proving is seeing". The provocative perlocutional effect is strengthened by using the metaphor "Making proposals is showing the way".
Both metaphors used here are of a conventional nature. In the first two gesture samples Sample 4 and Sample 5 , both candidates denounce contradictions in their opponent's behavior. So, we also remain in doubt regarding his sensibilities, he says that he is going to do PROUNI 1 but doesn't withdraw the lawsuit 2. The doubt, which is clear in the first utterance, is strengthened by using opposite gestures, which embody the contradiction expressed in the speech, expressing the following metaphor: "Contradict oneself is to assume opposite positions in space".
Dilma uses precision gestures G-family gestures, see also Kendon, , which are performed when she describes the contradictory actions of her opponent. In the following sample, at the end of the question about Petrobras, Serra points out a contradiction in Dilma's behavior regarding the company's privatization. She handed over, Petrobras handed over, oil exploration to a hundred and eight private companies, half, more or less, foreign, half, more or less, national. So, there is a contradiction, it isn't coherent the accusation that she makes against me 1 with what she did 2 in her government's practice.
Once again, we can notice the use of the metaphor "Contradict oneself is to assume opposite positions in space". The contradiction expressed in the speech is highlighted through gestures: both body, which takes opposite positions in space, and the right arm and hand, which make opposite movements - close first and open afterwards. In the two following samples Sample 6 and 7 , Serra, in his response, points out contradictions between Dilma's behavior and discourse, both in what she says regarding privatization and regarding abortion, which were controversial subjects that were widely debated during the second round of the elections.
In other words, what she did would be privatization; she gave it to private companies, foreign and national.
She says: I am against abortion 1 , I am in favor of abortion 2 , I am against privatizing telecommunications 1 , I am in favor of privatizing telecommunications 2 , I am against privatizing oil exploration 1 , I privatized oil exploration 2. In these two samples, the act of denouncing contradictory positions, expressed by the hands that go from one side to another, can be noticed. Here, 'being against' means that the left side is occupied, and 'being in favor' means that the right side is occupied, which corroborates with Calbris' hypothesis that negative values are positioned on the left and positive values on the right.
Once again, the candidate uses the metaphor "Contradict oneself is to assume opposite positions in space". In addition, the movement also shows a temporal dimension, in which, at some point in time, one thing is said, and afterwards the opposite is said. As indicated by Calbris , the past is located on the left and the future on the right, reproducing the evolution axis adopted by Western societies, from left to right. In this sample, Dilma starts her speech conveying an intentional verbal metaphor 1 that will be repeated several times during the debate: "Other oil reserves are winning tickets".
The metaphor would be part of the set "Ideas are objects". In the second part of the sequence 2, 3 , Dilma tries to establish a distinction between past and future. The division expressed in the speech is also expressed by the gestures: before is on the left and after is on the right. In the following sample - Sample 9 - Dilma, in a question, exploits the opposition between Fernando Henrique Cardoso's and Lula's governments regarding job creation.
Look, I'm going to ask a question that I have systematically asked, regarding employment, which is the following: our government 1 created almost fifteen million 2 formal jobs.
Fernando Henrique's 3 created five million. So, I ask you: what do you pretend to do, sir, to avoid repeating the disaster 4 of the previous administration regarding job creation. In this sample, together with the first gesture, the use of the pronoun "our" is a relevant language feature used by Dilma. It is used to show that she belongs to Lula's government, that enjoyed a record popularity, and to make the classic distinction: "We", the good doers x "They", the wrongdoers VAN DIJK, Finally, the metaphor "Mismanagement is a disaster" is used, in which the critics, through references to tragedies, are complemented by the gestural metaphor "Bad is down", which establishes a relation of complementarity with the speech by using an orientational metaphor.
Next, we will present the full sequence of the speech and, afterwards, it will be unfolded through the referred samples. O seu partido votou contra o modelo de partilha. Your party voted against the shared model. You don't have the courage to assume your position 1 , and you keep saying that you're not influenced 2 by the others 2. Well, then you are in the wrong party.
What is more, what he says 3 , that "the majority of the blocks are foreign", is a lie Because, in most cases, there is a Petrobras control over the blocks. The question isn't that 4. The question is that in the previous model 5 everything remained in the hands of the foreign company or any other company. As was previously mentioned, the reply will be unfolded into two gesture samples.
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In Sample 10, Dilma uses the perlocutionary effect of irony. You, sir, don't have the courage to assume your position 1 , and you keep saying that you're not influenced 2 by the others 3. In gesture sequences 1 to 3, the metaphor "Cowardice is falling from one side to another" is staged by gestures and bolstered by the reported speech.
Therefore, the gestures embody Dilma's discontent regarding Serra's attitudes, whereas the verbal content expresses discontent regarding the opponent's discourse. The combination of speech and gestures reveals an ironic way of pointing out the opponent's flaws. Yet, gesture 4 stages the quotation marks, resource used to discredit Serra's speech, which will be characterized as "a lie", directly after. The gesture can be considered ironic. It is relevant to notice that the irony mainly comes from the gesture.
The issue is not that one 5. The issue is that in the previous model 6 everything remained in the hands of the foreign company or any other company. Not now 7 : Now, as it is a lot of money and the resources huge In this sample Dilma, firstly, uses a pragmatic cutting gesture ZP-gesture, see also Kendon, to indicate the interruption of an idea, which can also be noticed in the speech.
Afterwards, she compares the measures taken by Fernando Henrique Cardoso's government, using the left side, to measures adopted by Lula's government, positioning the right hand on the right side. Once again, the hypothesis that the past and the negative values are located on the left side, whereas the future and the positive values are located on the right side, is proven.
After analyzing the metaphors found in the four debate sequences, we deemed it convenient to resume the metaphoricity question in an attempt to establish a continuum between metaphors of a conventional nature and those of a new nature. In the scheme below, a continuum linked to spatial orientation metaphors is illustrated:. Regarding the entrenchment degree of the metaphors in the conceptual system, we started from the assumption that visual metaphors, such as "as all saw it, she did not answer the question on health", are used in an almost automatic way by the speaker.
These expressions are so entrenched in our conceptual system that it becomes almost difficult to identify them as metaphors.
University Of Gloucestershire
On the other hand, the metaphors about position, especially those staged by gestures and in an ironic way, have a newer status. However, we believe that the great novelty, in these cases, is fairly linked to the ironic use of language - and not necessarily to the metaphoric use.
Actually, the orientational metaphors found in our corpus are generally of a fairly conventional nature. Regarding the inter-relation between gestures and metaphors, we based ourselves on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, in which "each conceptual metaphor consists of the systematic mapping of entities and relations from a sensorimotor source domain to a target domain that is abstract" JOHNSON, , p.
Taking the relation between gestures and speech into account, it was possible to build a gesture scale, from the analyses we performed. From our analyses, it was possible to prove that the gestural data not only replicate the conceptual metaphors given by the verbal data, but they also provide additional clues to multimodal mappings that can, inclusively, be the source of the gestures CIENKI, The analysis of the verbal variables, as well as the gestural variables and, above all, the link between these variables, allows one to overcome the circularity criticism made by the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, addressed in the first section of our paper CIENKI, When specifically addressing the strategies used by Candidates Dilma and Serra during the political-electoral debates analyzed in this study, it is possible to analyze the multimodal metaphors used by each candidate.
From the performed analyses, we noticed that Dilma makes more gestures when using metaphors, often using the resource of comparing both governments, Lula's and Fernando Henrique Cardoso's, through the spatial opposition metaphor.
In addition, she frequently associates the verbal metaphors with pragmatic precision or interruption gestures, which strengthen or complete the metaphoric meaning of the phrases. In addition, she uses gestures to convey a perlocutionary effect of irony, configuring a quite diverse use of gestural resources. Finally, Dilma makes a great use of metaphors and gestures in her speech, which would further direct the audience's attention both to what is being said as well as to how it is being said.
Regarding the metaphors used by Serra, we notice that he often uses conventional metaphors, sometimes unaccompanied by gestures. The use of gestures often occurs when denouncing the contradictory behaviors of his opponent.
Pictorial and Multimodal Metaphor
It is relevant to note that, as Lula's government and the projects developed at the time show a very high approval rate, Serra does not openly criticize them, while concomitantly trying to detach himself from his party's image. How can the differences in the uses of metaphors in the national political context be interpreted? How can they be associated to the election results? It is important to bear the premise raised by Lakoff in mind, that the elector's identification with certain values is crucial for a good outcome in the elections.